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ASR

The futhorc are an extended alphabet, consisting of 29, and later even 33 characters.

The Anglo-Saxon rune poem gives the following characters and names: ᚠ feoh, ᚢ ur, ᚦ þorn, ᚩ ōs, ᚱ rād, ᚳ cen, ᚷ ȝyfu, ᚹ ƿynn, ᚻ hæȝl, ᚾ nied, ᛁ īs, ᛄ ȝer, ᛇ eoh, ᛈ peorþ, ᛉ eolh, ᛋ siȝel, ᛏ tīr, ᛒ beorċ, ᛖ eh, ᛗ mann, ᛚ lagu, ᛝ ing, ᛟ ēðel, ᛞ dæȝ, ᚪ āc, ᚫ æsc, ᚣ ȳr, ᛡ ior, ᛠ ear.

The expanded alphabet features the additional letters ᛢ cƿeorþ, ᛣ calc, ᛤ ċealc and ᛥ stān- these additional letters have only been found in manuscripts. Feoh, þorn, and siȝel stood for [f], [þ], and [s] in most environments, but voiced to [v], [ð], and [z] between vowels or voiced consonants. Ȝyfu and ƿynn stood for the letters yogh and wynn, which became [g] and [w] in Middle English.

All runestaves perform the same function and purpose as their Elder Futhark counterparts, but it seems that cƿeorþ, calc, ċealc, and stān held no known magical purpose.

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